This summer Atlantic Initiative (AI), in coordination with the University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Political Science and the University of Colorado Denver (UCD), hosted the study-abroad program, “2010: State and Nation Building in Bosnia and Herzegovina”. This eight-week, educational and experiential learning program, designed and organized by the Post Conflict Research Center’s Velma Šarić, took place in Sarajevo from June 3rd through July 30th, 2010. Eight American graduate and undergraduate students from UCD, University of Denver (DU), and Metro College Denver, along with five Bosnian students from the University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Political Science, participated in this summer’s program. Students attended lectures at the University of Sarajevo’s Faculty of Political Science each morning and participated in internships with local non-governmental organizations in the afternoons. American professors led courses that focused on institution-building, corruption, reconciliation and peacebuilding for BiH and the Balkans region. Local experts from politics, media, national and international law and academia shared their experiences and insights, thereby adding a new dimension to the theoretical basis of the courses. In addition to time spent at the faculty, students participated in a number of study trips that further deepened their understanding of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
II) Components of the Program
A) Academic Components
The summer study abroad program began with a four-day orientation trip during which students were able to travel to various locations within Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The purpose of orientation was to give students a feel for the cultural dynamics, political atmosphere, and historical context of the region, but it also proved valuable in that it allowed the students to bond with one another prior to the beginning of the academic program in Sarajevo.
Orientation began in the Croatian capital of Zagreb. Upon arrival into Zagreb, students checked into the BuzzPackers Hostel and set off to enjoy a welcome dinner at a traditional Croatian restaurant in the city center. The following day began with a tour of Zagreb, provided by Zagreb Inside, entitled, “Do you speak Croatian?,” which gave students the opportunity to acquaint themselves with the local language. The next destination was Plitvice Lakes National Park from which the students then travelled to Vodice and then on to Split, Croatia. Students spent several hours in Split and then continued on to Mostar via Pocitelj. A stop was made in Blagaj, BiH where students visited Tekija, a famous monastery on the source of the River Buna, which still stands after 600 years and numerous wars. On Sunday morning, students toured Mostar and continued on to Sarajevo via Jablanica where they were able to see Bitka  on the Neretva River. The orientation trip concluded in Sarajevo where students were then joined with their host families.
2010: State and Nation Building in Bosnia and Herzegovina was an academic program consisting of two 4 week courses that were held Monday through Thursday from 9 to 11 AM each day. This portion of the program began on Tuesday, June 8, 2010 and concluded on Thursday, July 29, 2010.
The first course, entitled “State-Building and the Challenge of Organized Crime and Corruption in Bosnia and Herzegovina,” was taught by UCD professor Dr. Christoph Stefes. The course focused on identifying the origins and nature of corruption and organized crime in BiH. Students were asked to analyze how these vices hinder the country in achieving the triple task of building a functioning market, a viable state, and a meaningful democracy. The course also involved the assessment of attempts to fight corruption in BiH and the development of ideas to improve this fight. In order to do this, students relied on quantitative and qualitative studies, covering BiH and other countries around the world, especially in the South Caucasus, and heard from people in BiH who are directly confronted with corruption as citizens, domestic and foreign officials, NGO representatives, etc.
The second course, entitled “Bosnia after Dayton: One State, Three Nations,” was taught by UCD professor Dr. Thorsten Spehn and focused on providing an overview of the main approaches and issues in the study of nationalism, ethnic conflict, national reconciliation and state-building, combining theoretical knowledge with experiential learning within the immersed setting of BiH, and helping to develop or strengthen skills in analytical analysis.
In addition to regular lectures, students heard from a wide variety of guest speakers that included experts in the fields of journalism, national and international law, political science, international relations, media, genocide, and many others. Please see APPENDIX A for a complete list of all guest speakers and a short description of the issues that were presented by each.
Students were involved in the planning and organization of the conference “Remembrance and Forgiveness: Steps toward a Bright Future,” which was held at Hotel Europe and organized and coordinated by the Center for Justice and Reconciliation (CJR) in partnership with the Association for Concentration Camp Detainees Bosnia and Herzegovina (ACCDBiH). This conference was the first of its kind in BiH, bringing 35 international students and 65 Bosnian students from all regions of BiH, including from both the Federation and the Republika Srpska entities, together to discuss the issues surrounding genocide and concentration camp detainment. It’s importance was marked by the 15th anniversary of the Srebrenica genocide to which the second day of the conference was dedicated. US Ambassador, Charles English, opened the second day of the conference and panelists focused on the events that took place in Bosanska Krajina and Srebrenica during the Bosnian War. Students had the unique chance to hear from prominent experts, journalists, professors and survivors on the topics of genocide, reconciliation and peacebuilding. Financial support, provided by the the Embassy of the United States of America – Bosnia and Herzegovina and the ACCDBiH, made it possible for students from the Federation, Republika Srpska and Brcko District to attend. Additional funding for the conference was provided by the Konrad Adenauer Foundation and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), while Hotel Europe provided the venue and accommodation for speakers, students and guests. The conference received significant media coverage and was featured on BiH’s main television stations and appeared in various outlets for print and digital media.
This academic component of the program combined a series of study trips that were of historical, political and cultural importance. These trips helped participants to understand the complex challenges of promoting economic development, reconciliation and multi-ethnic cooperation in a post-conflict society.
- The Presidency, the Office of the High Representative (OHR) and the International Commission on Missing Persons (ICMP)
Students were able to visit the BiH Presidency, the Office of the High Representative (OHR), and the world headquarters of the International Commission on Missing Persons (ICMP).
- Potocari and Srebrenica
This trip, organized by CJR, was focused around the issues of genocide and reconciliation. Student from Denver were joined by students from Georgetown University – Doha, Qatar campus. Our first destination was to the Potocari Memorial Center where students heard from advocates and survivors about Srebrenica during and after the war in BiH, and, specifically, about the genocide which occurred in July of 1995. Mr. Camil Durakovic, Vice Mayor of the Municipality of Srebrenica, spoke to the group about the ongoing difficulties that are experienced in Srebrenica and answered students’ questions about the consequences of genocide. Students then visited the cemetery in the memorial complex where identified victims of the genocide have been laid to rest. Following Mr. Durakovic’s presentation, students watched a film about the events of July 1995 and toured the old battery factory where the Dutch UN Peacekeeping troops were stationed and. Mrs. Hatidza Mehmedovic, a survivor and advocate for the women of Srebrenica, then gave a personal account of her experience and the hardships she now faces after losing her husband and two sons to genocide. After visiting the Memorial Center, students continued to Srebrenica for a coffee break so that they would have an opportunity to see the state of the town today.
- Tuzla and Brcko
Directly following the visits to Potocari and Srebrenica, the group traveled to Tuzla where they were given a tour of the park where memorials for the victims of WWII and for those children who lost their lives to the attack on Tuzla during the Bosnian War in 1995 have been erected. This was followed by an educational and historical tour of the town center. Mr. Jasmin Imamovic, Mayor of Tuzla, hosted the group in the city government building
On Monday, June 21st, participants traveled to Brcko District where they visitied the city government building and heard from Mr. Rizo Civic, the Minister of Education. Mr. Civic’s lecture helped students learn more about the challenges of integrating students and tailoring curriculum materials in a post-conflict society. Students then went to the Brcko District Parliament building where they heard from the President of the Parliament, Mr. Mirsad Djapo. Mr. Djapo explained the special legal status of Brcko District and how judicial processes function there.and discussed BiH’s current challenges involving reconciliation and economic transition. Finally, students visited the organization Bosnian Family (BOSFAM), a humanitarian organization providing psycho-social support and income-generation projects to female victims of war, most of whom remain internally displaced in the Federation 15 years after the war’s conclusion. Students had the opportunity to purchase traditional Bosnian handicrafts and then had dinner at their place of accommodation, Hotel Tuzla.
Over the course of the summer program, students were offered the possibility to take part in various optional activities both within Sarajevo and throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia.
- Sarajevo – The Tunnel Museum, Roman Bridge, Jewish Cemetery and Kovaci Cemetery
Students attended the commemoration at Bikavac  in the municipality of Visegrad and Hikmet Karcic, a local area expert and human rights activist, provided a tour of the town and a historical background of the events that occurred during WWII and the Bosnian War. Following the commemoration, students visited the UNESCO World Heritage Bridge on the Drina River and then had lunch in Mededa, a village near Visegrad with a large population of Bosniak returnees .
- Mars Mira
Students participated in the Peace March (Mars Mira), from Nezuk to Potočari which is a three day walk on the path that men and boys from Srebrenica took to escape the genocide . After the march, students attended the 15th commemoration of the genocide in Srebrenica. Many students commented that attending the commemoration was a unique and sobering experience and Sean Michael Barbezat stated:
“What moved me most was meeting the survivors and hearing the stories of their experiences. Local residents welcomed us in every place through which we passed. They invited us into their homes, shared coffee, water, snacks and bread with us and the thousands of participants regardless of ethnicity. The last day, a woman who was also participating in the march shared a cup of coffee with me in his home and sang a traditional song about forgiveness and happiness. It is a moment that I will never forget.”
Students spent the weekend at a camp near Foca, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The day was devoted to rafting on the Tara through BiH and Montenegro.
Students spent the weekend in Dubrovnik on the Croatian coast.
B) Field Work Component
Students requested that the program provide them with internship opportunities so that they may gain real-world experience and practical knowledge for their future careers. They were therefore placed in the following organizations for a two-month period, according to their interests:
- Atlantic Initiative (AI) www.atlantskainicijativa.org – Sean Michael Barbezat (DU), Peter Jacob Gorman (UCD), and Michael Moreland (DU)
- Center for Justice and Reconciliation (CJR ) www.cjr.ba – Peter Jacob Gorman (UCD), Brian Giulieri (DU), Michael Moreland (DU), and Leslie Woodward (DU)
- Community Gardens Association (CGA) www.cgabih.org/bih – Suzanne Wolke (DU)
- Gariwo www.gariwo.net – Jillian Bird (DU)
- Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN) www.bim.ba – Brian Giulieri (DU)
- The Association for Concentration Camp Detainees Bosnia and Herzegovina (ACCDBiH) www.logorasibih.ba – Leslie Woodward (DU)
At their various internships, students were able to publish their work, including articles and photography (AI, CJR and BIRN), participate in the planning and coordination of a conference on genocide and concentration camp detainment (CJR and ACCD), write, edit and create various documents, grant and project proposals, and reports, and organize tours of their host organizations (CGA and ACCD).
The following descriptions were written by Michael Moreland and Brian Giulieri about their experiences interning at AI and BIRN:
Internship at Atlantic Initiative – By Michael Moreland
As a master’s candidate in international security at the University of Denver, I was keenly interested in learning how Bosnians interpreted their security environment and what joining the NATO Alliance would mean for them. I was therefore placed with Atlantic Initiative.
Atlantic Initiative is a recently established NGO in Sarajevo, BiH, and was founded with the aim of advocating Bosnia and Herzegovina’s accession into NATO and advancing BiH’s integration with the North Atlantic community. Much of what we did at Atlantic Initiative involved researching and reporting on different aspects of the integration process. The process of harmonizing Bosnia’s complicated legal, political, economic, and military frameworks with those of Europe is very complicated and multi-dimensional. For us, this translated into a wide array of issues that we could choose to delve into.
I was placed along with two other classmates at AI and we each were able to choose to focus on topics and issues that pertained to our specific interests. The topics my fellow interns chose to focus on included terrorism in BiH and the status of human trafficking, but I was looking to broaden my horizons a bit. Fortunately, my supervisor, Dr. Edina Becirevic, said that they were looking for someone to cover emerging issues surrounding cyber crime in BiH. Since I do not have much of a computer science background, this particular issue provided the challenge I had been looking for. In addition to working on challenging and interesting issues, I really valued the opportunities that we were given to write and submit articles to be used in the AI newsletter, website, and publication. I believe that, for all of us, it really motivated us to push our writing abilities to the next level and to be passionate about the issues.
The people that we got to work with at AI were very professional and accommodating to our specific fields of interest. They provided valuable ideas and feedback that we could use in our articles, and they worked very hard to offer us many interesting experiences that would sharpen our professional portfolios. Overall, I am very grateful for the experiences that I had as an intern with the Atlantic Initiative in Sarajevo. I believe that it has enhanced my professional skill set and afforded me valuable perspectives into international security issues.
BIRN Internship – By: Brian Giulieri
My primary responsibilities at BIRN were to attend trials conducted at the War Crimes Chamber of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo and to write daily reports about the proceedings I attended. My internship also involved doing a significant amount of pre-trial research about each hearing I observed. Researching each case included learning the definitions of the legal terms used, studying the backgrounds of each indictee, and gathering as much available information about each crime alleged to have been committed.
Working at BIRN provided me an invaluable opportunity to learn about the war crimes tribunal process. Attending the court proceedings gave me a better understanding about the scope of the crimes committed during the war and the importance of objective reporting in informing the public about the war crimes tribunal process. Working at BIRN also helped me improve my writing and fact gathering skills, two critical elements for any successful journalist to have.
Overall, it was a very good internship. The reporters I worked with were very helpful and willing to share their experience as court reporters with me. I also learned a great deal from them about what life in Sarajevo was like during the war. Admittedly though, I had concerns when I first started. Initially, there wasn’t much direction on what I was supposed to be doing or whom I reported to. Once those issues were clarified, everything went smoothly and I had a successful experience at BIRN, including getting two articles published. I would recommend interning at BIRN for any self-motivated journalist interested in improving their reporting skills and in learning more about the war crimes tribunal process in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
III) Student Accommodation
Students lived with host families in various locations in and around Sarajevo, which served to enrich their learning experience and broaden their understanding of Bosnian culture.
American student Leslie Woodward commented:
“Living with my roommate Aida was an experience that would have never been possible if I had lived with only American students in dorm-style housing. I had a chance to practice the language and really immerse myself in Bosnian culture. I truly got an inside perspective on what day to day life was like here and I made a lifelong friend in the process.”
This program was a great success and would not have been possible without the work of Dr. Edina Becirevic and Dr. Vlado Azinovic, and support of Dean Mirko Pejanovic. Dr. Becirevic, professor for the Faculty of Criminal Justice and President of AI, was responsible for the development of the structural elements of the program, holding a lecture on international law and genocide in Srebrenica, organizing student internships, and holding a panelist position at the conference, “Remembrance and Forgiveness: Steps toward a Bright Future.” Dr. Azinovic, a professor of terrorism studies at the Faculty and General Secretary of AI, held lectures for the students, organized the involvement of faculty members and Bosnian students, and assisted in the planning of the academic components of the program. Through AI’s partnership with the Faculty, students were able to use the school’s facilities free of charge. Ms. Velma Saric and Ms. Alison Sluiter coordinated accommodation, guest speakers, the orientation program, study trips, optional excursions and other logistical aspects of the program. As a part of the program, AI hosted a welcome party for the students, and a farewell party was hosted by Dean Pejanovic. UCD made a book donation totaling $600 to the Faculty and a private book donation of $600.00 was also made by the father of one of the students. In total, 50 books were donated to the Faculty’s library.
V) Comments About the Program
How can scholars and students gain more insight into the consequences of war and the challenges people in post-conflict society face then through a direct visit to the country and through discussions with people who work in the field? Exchange programs and study visits are the best approach to explain to students of different disciplines something which many of them have never witnessed and have a hard time comprehending. Given that in Bosnia and Herzegovina, NGOs are the driving force of the process of reconciliation and do the work which government institutions cannot or do not want to deal with, their representatives can give the best insight into the problems and challenges victims of war face. For an NGO working in the field, it is always good to present its work to as many people possible. Not only will this raise the visibility of the NGO but, more importantly, it will make the troubles and pain of the people it represents known to students and scholars who are going to do further research, write papers and implement projects from which victims can also benefit.
Thus, the presentation for the students of Colorado University was a very useful activity for me as a representative of TRIAL but also for them, because they were introduced to the actual problems of families of missing persons in Bosnia and Herzegovina from a organization which specializes in this subject and has years of experience working on the field.
This program should be available for more local students from BiH and the region because young people are willing to study and learn about new things. I had a great time teaching in this program. The students had a lot of questions for me, and we could talk for hours. I could see that those young people were very well informed about the past, present and possible future of BiH. I highly recommend this program for the future.
“For me, the summer program in Sarajevo represented so much more than the small-scale education of eight students, it represented a general interest in cooperation and understanding between the USA, BiH and other countries within the region. It gave eight students the chance to understand the incredible complexity of BiH and the Balkans region. Apart from the lectures, which provided an academic insight into the stranglehold of politics between Sarajevo and Banja Luka, our trips to the regions around the country taught us more than we ever imagined. Additionally, we were able to build friendships, not just with one other, but with numerous talented and charismatic people that truly care about their country and its future.
We were able to see and take part in events such as the 15th Commemoration of the Srebrenica Genocide, the 18th Anniversary of the Bikavac House Fire in Visegrad, an impassioned football game at the famous Kosevo Stadium, and the Sarajevo International Film Festival. Many Bosnians are ready to move away from dwelling in the past, and have proven to be interested and involved in their own advancement. Although the political system leaves much to be desired, it is clear that there exists a multi-layered, emotional spectrum of potential that can act as a strong source of culture and social progression.
The program, as a whole, taught me (and I know I speak for the other students) so much more than any teacher, classroom, textbook, or simple vacation could. Because this trip was able to combine so many brilliant and important aspects of BiH and its culture, history, and current situation, I know that I will use my experience not only for personal growth, but for a contribution to the advancement of BiH and the human race. I take away only positive thoughts from BiH and my summer there.”famous Kosevo Stadium, and the Sarajevo International Film Festival. Many Bosnians are ready to move away from dwelling in the past, and have proven to be interested and involved in their own advancement. Although the political system leaves much to be desired, it is clear that there exists a multi-layered, emotional spectrum of potential that can act as a strong source of culture and social progression.
BOSNIA SUMMER PROGRAM 2010 – LIST OF SPEAKERS
Dr. Mirko Pejanovic, Dean of the Faculty of Political Science, Sarajevo
Welcomed American students and a lectured on the political system in BiH after the Dayton Peace Accords and the challenges the country now faces.
Jan Brattu, Norwegian Ambassador and Balkans Area Expert
Explained the structure of the Dayton Peace Agreement and gave a break-down of the social and political environment in BiH.
Merdijana Sadović, Project Manager for Institute of War and Peace Reporting (IWPR)
Discussed current trials dealing with the prosecution of major war criminals and the hardships that victims face in seeking justice through the current judicial system.
Srečko Latal, Political Analyst for International Crisis Group (ICG)
Explained the role that the ICG in post-Dayton BiH and discussed human rights issues.
Dr. Vlado Azinović, Professor of Terrorism Studies for the Faculty of Political Science, University of Sarajevo
Gave a lecture on terrorist activity in BiH before, during and after the Bosnian War with a special lecture on the recent terrorist attack in Bugojno, BiH.
Dr. Dino Abazović, Professor of Sociology and Religion for the Faculty of Political Science, University of Sarajevo
Lectured on the intricacies of religion in BiH and how it played a role in the ethnic division of the country before, during and after the Bosnian War.
Dr. Asim Mujkić, Professor of Philosophy for the Faculty of Political Science, University of Sarajevo
Lectured on the ethnic divisions that are present in Bosnia today as a result of elite and political propaganda.
Milorad Barasin, BiH Chief Prosecutor
Discussed the issues surrounding the transitional justice process and the judicial system, and presented information regarding current court cases involving crime and corruption in BiH.
Michael Tatham, British Ambassador to BiH
Explained the challenges facing the international community’s involvement in peacebuilding and statebuilding in BiH.
Janine di Giovanni, War Reporter and Writer
Discussed her experiences as a reporter on the front lines of war during the‘Siege of Sarajevo’ as well as her reportage during the UN intervention in Kosovo.
Kathryne Bomberger, General Director of the International Commission on Missing Persons (ICMP)
Gave an inside look into the methods the ICMP uses to identify the remains of victims of genocide and war and the steps taken to use DNA evidence to bring war criminals to justice as well as to reveal a greater truth about the events that took place during the Bosnian War.
Dr. Damir Arnaut, Legal Advisor to President Haris Silajdzic
Gave a briefing on the current problems that the Presidency faces in implementing policies, the current economic situation, and BiH’s integration into NATO and the EU.
Sejfudin Hodzić, Political Advisor to the President Haris Silajdzic
Discussed the issue of refugees and the challenges that the alternating presidential terms, the presence of dual entities (Federation and Republika Srpska), and the cantonal divisions present for policy implementation and societal reintegration.
Michael Haner, Head of Public Security Sector Reform Unit for the Office of the High Representative (OHR)
Discussed the proliferation of international agencies at the state level and the OHR’s focus on the basic institutional development and capacity these agencies as well as its responsibility to oversee the civilian aspects of peace implementation.
Kevin Lomax, Security Advisor for the U.S. Embassy, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Gave a briefing on security and safety issues in BiH.
Jasmin Imamović, Mayor of Tuzla
Presented an overview of the current policies being enacted and explained the challenges of economic reform and development in Tuzla.
Camil Duraković, Vice Mayor of the Municipality of Srebrenica
Explained the problems that the municipality faces due to genocide and war.
Hatidza Mehmedović, Mother and Survivor of the Srebrenica Genocide
Shared her story of survival and the personal loss of her children to the Srebrenica genocide in 1995 as well as the impact that the genocide has had on the women of Srebrenica.
Mersed Smajlović, Director of Potocari Memorial Complex, Srebrenica Municipality
Gave a tour of the memorial site and provided a historical background of Srebrenica and the events that transpired there during the war and genocide.
Asim Šahinpašić, Public Relations Officer for the European Union Police Ministry (EUPM)
Discussed current methods for anti-corruption campaigning and the issues surrounding the fight against crime and corruption in BiH.
Mirsad Djapo, President of Parliament, Brcko District
Gave a briefing on the types of cases brought to the court and how the cases are handled, as well as explained the structure of the Brcko judicial system.
Rizo Čivić, Minister of Education, Brcko District
Discussed the current curriculum being dispersed in the district’s school system, and the integration of students in the Brcko.
Satko Mujagić, Omarska Concentration Camp Detainee
Gave a personal account of his experiences while detained in the Omarska Concentration Camp during the war in Bosnia from 1992 – 1995.
Lejla Mamut, Human Rights Coordinator for Track Impunity Always (TRIAL)
Discussed the methods her NGO uses to help the families of missing persons to seek reparations, help and transitional justice.
Hikmet Karičić, Human Rights Activist and Visegrad Area Expert
Lectured on the history of Visegrad during WWII up until the Bosnian War of 1992 – 1995 and discussed the issues of rape camps, torture, and war crimes.
Anisa Sučeska–Vekić, Director of the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN)
Presented information about pending cases involving war crimes that being tried in front of the BiH State Criminal Court.
Erna Mačkić, Editor and Journalist for the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN)
Presented the challenges that BiH reporters face when trying to present fair, balanced and professional court reporting.
Davor Brdjanović, Director of Community Gardens Association (CGA)
Gave a presentation about how CGA is contributing to the environment of justice and reconciliation by gathering people who were deeply affected as a consequence of the war by providing social healing through working together in the gardens.
“REMEMBRANCE AND FORGIVENESS: STEPS TOWARD A BRIGHT FUTURE” CONFERENCE
List of Presenters
Tuesday, July 6th
MURAT TAHIROVIĆ, President of the Association of the Concentration Camp Detainees Bosnia and Herzegovina
DR. GREGORY STANTON, Professor at George Mason University and Director of Genocide Watch
ED VULLIAMY, Journalist and Writer/Reporter for the Guardian
FIKRET ALIĆ, Survivor of the concentration camps Trnopolje and Keraterm in Bosnia and Herzegovina
MERDIJANA SADOVIĆ, Project Manager for the Institute for War and Peace Reporting and Co-founder of the Center for Justice and Reconciliation
RANDI MARKUSEN, Board Member of World Without Genocide, the Post Genocide Education Fund, and Director of Rwanda Reads
MUNIRA “BEBA” HADŽIĆ, Director and Founder of BOSFAM
PETER LIPPMAN, Human Rights Activist, focusing on refugee return and recovery in postwar Bosnia
Wednesday, July 7th
CHARLES L. ENGLISH, Ambassador of the United States to Bosnia and Herzegovina
DR. GREGORY STANTON, Professor at George Mason University and Director of Genocide Watch
DR. ELLEN J. KENNEDY, Interim Director of the Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies at the University of Minnesota and Executive Director of World Without Genocide
DR. EDINA BEĆIREVIĆ, Co-Founder of Center for Justice and Reconciliation and Professor at University of Sarajevo
HASAN NUHANOVIĆ, Srebrenica Survivor, Activist, and Author
FIKRET KARČIĆ, Professor at the Faculty of Law and Islamic Studies, University of Sarajevo
 Where the famous Battle on the Neretva River took place during WWII. Yugoslav Partisans tried to stop the Germans from advancing further into Bosnian territory by destroying the bridge that spans the Neretva River.
 Bikavac is the site of a well-known massacre during which many people were burned alive in a house on a hill just outside Visegrad.
 For more information on the commemoration and Visegrad, as well as a photo gallery done by the students of the program, go to http://www.cjr.ba/en/page.php?id=55 and http://genocideinvisegrad.wordpress.com/2010/06/
 In July 1995, some 8,000 Bosniak men and boys were killed after the United Nations-protected enclave of Srebrenica fell to Bosnian Serb forces. On July 11 that year, around 25,000 Bosniak refugees sought refuge in the UN base in the village of Potocari near Srebrenica before Bosnian Serb troops began the forcible transfer of the refugees from the enclave the next day